1. Elizabeth Moore

    Senior Thesis Outline

    Thesis: The attempted coup of July 16, 2016 was triggered by religious tensions within the Turkish government. Friction between Islam and secularism, as embodied in the policies of Mustafa Kemal, later Ataturk, are at the root of most of the modern conflicts within Turkey. These tensions can be traced to the disintegration of the Ottoman empire and the birth of the Modern Turkish republic in the years after World War I. An examination of the recently failed coup will demonstrate a trend toward increased religious sentiment within Turkey.

    1. The Ottoman Empire: Basic overview that emphasizes Religion’s position in Turkish government
      1. Scope: Islam dominated Turkish society during the era Sultanate
        1. Sultanate: The position and what that meant
          1. Laws
          2. Traditions
        2. Societal structure: Influenced by Islam
          1. Customs
          2. Beliefs
            1. Quran
            2. WAY OF LIFE
      2. Empire’s decline
        1. Treaty of Severance
          1. Shift from sultanate and internal powers to western powers
          2. Weakening of the government structure because of the lack of central Leadership and common values provided by Islam
        2. Intensely islamic values for extended period of time encouraged an extreme secular rebellion
    2. New turkey
      1. Ataturk                                               
        1. Goals
          1. Technological Advancements of turkey
          2. Westernization
          3. Ideologies: He used these to overthrow the rule of the sultanate/western powers to establish Turkey as its own independent state. These ideologies are a tool Ataturk used in order  to unite people and gain a majority
            1. Secularism
              1. Laws
              2. General opinion
              3. Society’s new structure
            2. Nationalism
              1. National identity instead of religion, anti religion, representing the new age and progressivism
              2. This enabled revolution by uniting people through nationalism rather than religious association/beliefs
        2. Government (post revolution)
          1. Structure:
            1. Lack of religion
            2. Anti Islamist laws and sentiments
            3. Gained civil rights(women in particular)
            4. Economy differences(free market)
          2. Executive powers
            1. Significance of prime minister position and president
            2. How are these people “elected”+
          3. Military authority : This is the origin of the military gaining its “defender of secularism” complex which leads to later coups
      2. 60’s coup
        1. Democratic Political Party (populism, resurgence of Islam)
          1. Major values and beliefs
          2. Conception
          3. Religious affiliation (end of single party government)
        2. Events leading to coup
          1. 1950 government party overthrown and democratic party nominee Celal Bayer succeeds Inonu.
          2. Goals of completely aligning with the west
          3. 1954-57 Bayer/Medres gov reinstated and economic decline increased gov regulation
        3. Results
          1. Military puppet government
          2. Constant changes in government head (picked by the military of course)
          3. Excessive government control led to 1960 coup led by an army junta
          4. Led to 70’s “second republic”
      3. Second republic
        1. 69-72 civil unrest, disputes between leftist and rightist and separatist movement from kurds
        2. Civil and political instability  Why? What divided the left and the right?
        3. Martial law 80
          1. Military control
          2. Forcible peace
          3. The role the military played and why they feel entitled to play this role as protector of secularism
          4. New constitution ‘82
      4. New constitution/Third republic
        1. unicameral legislature, military command over civilian matters and automatic military
          1. Political events(Beginning of islamist swing)
            1. ‘83 Motherland party takes Prime Minister seat
            2. ‘87 martial law lifted in most areas except Kurdish provinces due to guerilla campaign from Kurdish workers party
            3. ‘89 Motherland part PM takes presidency
            4. ‘91 True path party takes over gov again with Demerol
            5. ‘94 financial crisis instability leads to tighter government control
            6. ‘95 welfare(an islamist party) won elections and in 96 joined true path party
            7. Gov increased religious tolerance
            8. ‘98 welfare party banned turned into virtue party
        2. Political parties
          1. Show evolution of basically the same islamist party and how they kept dissolving but had so much support and tenacity, they reformed
          2. These islamist parties are the predecessor to religious swing in other direction
        3. The religious Majority opinion rule
        4. Gullenism (Refer to UVA article)
    3. April 16, 2016 Coup
      1. Erodgen
        1. Rise to power/personal experiences
          1. Beliefs
          2. Events(Imprisonment, discrimination)
        2. AKP; the political parties will have already been reviewed so just tie back
        3. Specifics about his rule
          1. Duration
          2. New laws/changes to constitution
          3. His goals
      2. Events of the coup
        1. Build up
          1. Issues the coup “plotters” had
          2. Increasing religious state
          3. Goals of this coup
        2. The event
          1. Specific timeline(refer to the first hand source)
            1. The assassination attempts
            2. The counter couper’s
            3. Military actions
          2. Important instigators
            1. Military leaders
            2. Gulen
              1. Where he was during this coup
              2. His thoughts(theories about instigation) and involvement
        3. Final wrap up and analyzation of topic
          1. Make the connections and comparisons of why this coup was different
          2. Analyzing failure
            1. Not fully backed by military(contrast with previous coups as comparison)
              1. Erogen strategically placed people with his ideals into higher positions in order to ensure he could have some protection and stay in power
                1. Smart move because this is part of the reason this coup failed
                2. Parts of the military are less and less secular potentially redefining the military-civilian relations in Turkey
              2. Coupers didn’t have enough power to overthrow the government and assert their authority
            2. No majority(a majority of people countered the coup efforts)
            3. Explain the reasoning why this coup was not supported because religion (islam) deeply rooted in this culture and held society’s social structure and rules of social conduct
          3. Demonstrate/reiterate religion’s importance to these events: from secularism to Islamic leaning in government
            1. The people have been pushing for increased religious influence and this was demonstrated in this recent coup because of its failure to re-secularize
            2. Looking forward
          4. Use past coups to speculate into what is going to happen in the future
            1. Basically, this country refuses to follow a consistent constitution, so it is informal majority rule, so whenever there is a majority that disagrees with the ruling party the majority overthrows the government and becomes the ruling party with their own constitution
            2. This means the government will never experience stability without a consistent execution of one agreed- upon constitution, so the country will continue to swing toward either secularism or religious ideals until the country either implodes or a middle ground is found