This article does a history of major treaties, changes in government and leadership since 1918 (the beginning of modern turkey).

Beginning of Turkey

  • Treaty of Serves (1920) reduced and more or less put an end to the Ottoman empire. Accepted by the sultan Muhammed VI (at this point OE is clearly Islamic)
  • Began gov operations out Anarka
  • This is when nationalist Mustafa Kemal organized and over threw sultan rule and government, allied with USSR
  • Turkey pushes into Greece and surrounding countries, attempting expansion but allies don’t reallyknow what to do so they don’t send troops
  • By 1922, still a caliphate but new sultan abd al-Majd didn’t have much power, figure head
  • 1923 Treaty of Lusanne revision of treaty of serves and recognizes turkey and it’s boundries as a soverign state
  • Oct 1923 Republic of turkey Kemal (Attaturk) as president for  15 years: Nationalist policies, heavy executive control, single party politics, isolationism, Western model
  • W/in 1st year (1924) caliphate abolished and move toward secularization
  • 1923 Anarake new capital
  • 1925 Antireligious policy
  • 1926 Swiss German and Italian code
  • 1928 Islam no longer state religion
  • 1930 Constantinople renamed Istanbul due to religious connotations
  • 1932 Joined league of Nation
  • 1934 Balkan entrente
  • 1936 Monreaux convention
  • 1937 saadabad pact
  • 1938 Attaturk Death succeeded by Ismet Inonu
  • 1939 France agreement over Alexandria
  • 1945 Pressured by allies into WW2 breaks agreement with USSR
  • Democratic political party established
  • 1950 government party overthrown and democratic party nominee celal bayer scceeds Inonu Goals of completely aligning with the west
  • 1952 become NATO member
  • 1954 military denfense pact Balkan Pact
  • 1959 creation of CENTO Baghdad pact
  • Took forgien aid from marshal plan and expanded
  • 1954-57 Bayer/Medres gov reinstated and economic decline increased gov regulation
  • government control lead to 1960 coup lead by an army junta

second republic

  • until the 70’s there were constant changes in the head of government
  • 1962 turkey support US in Cuban missil crisis
  • 1969 us turkey military agreement
  • 69-72 civil unrest, disputes between leftist and rightist and separatist movement from kurds
  • 71 banned opium poppy due to request from US (74 allowed to cultivate for medicinal purposes)
  • 74 turkey invades Cyprus, takes 30% of land and discovers oil under contential shelf
  • 75-80 Alternating head of minority govs under Demeral
  • 80 martial law after civil violence killed 2000 people and military seized control of state (forcible peace)
  • 82 new  constitution put in place

Third republic( more or less)

  • unicameral legislature, military command over civilan matters and automic military
  • 83 Motherland party takes Prime Minister seat
  • 87 martial law lifted in most areas except Kurdish provinces due to guerilla campaign from Kurdish workers party
  • 89 Motherland part PM takes presidency
  • 89 huge influx of Muslim turks (300,00) from bulgaria
  • 91 turkey was used as an airstrike base for US
  • 91 True path party takes over gov again with Demeral
  • 94 financial crisis instability leads to tighter government control
  • 95 welfare(an islamist party) won elections and in 96 joined true path party
  • Gov increased religious tolerance
  • 98welfare party banned turned into virtue party
  • 00 borrowed 7.5mill from IMF to try to control inflation
  • 02 goes into recession
  • 01 Virtue party banned but party memebers were allowed to keep positions
  • Virtue party turned into Justice and development party
  • 02 Martial law was finally lifted in Kurdish provinces after 20 years
  • 03 Erodogen elect as PM
  • 03 Turkey refused US to us them as an invasion point into Iraq

This is the basic info the article went through, look at note on the article to make connections and see thoughts about events

“Turkish Studies – Republic of Turkey: Brief History.” Turkish Studies – Republic of Turkey: Brief History. University of Michigan, n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2016. <;.