Dickinson, Janis, and Walter Koenig. “Animal Social Behaviour.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 19 June 2015. Web. 06 Sept. 2016.
  • Social behavior is the interactions between more than two individuals, usually of the same species
    • “form simple aggregations, cooperate in sexual or parental behaviour, engage in disputes over territory and access to mates, or simply communicate across space.”

    • “ranges from simpleattraction between individuals to life in complex societies characterized by division of labour, cooperation, altruism, and a great many individuals aiding the reproduction of a relative few.”

  • Categories
    • eusociality – showing an advanced level of social organization, in which a single female or caste produces the offspring and nonreproductive individuals cooperate in caring for the young in a multigenerational colony
      • parasocial –
      • quasisocial –
      • Semisocial –
    • subsocial – tending to associate gregariously but lacking fixed or complex social organization
    • What makes up a society:
      • group size
      • distributions of different age and sex classes
      • cohesiveness
      • amount and pattern of connectedness
      • “permeability,” or the degree to which societies interact with one another
      • “compartmentalization,” or the extent to which subgroups operate as discrete units
      • differentiation of roles among group members
      • integration of behaviours within groups
      • communication and information flow
      • fraction of time devoted to social behaviour as opposed to individual maintenance
  • Range of Social Behavior
    • simple attraction between individuals to life in complex societies characterized by division of labour, cooperation, altruism, and a great many individuals aiding the reproduction of a relative few
    • how sociality benefits the individuals involved
      • Interactions can be dangerous
      • Examples of social interactions:
        • Fighting for territory or food
        • Increased access to food
        • Increased protection
      • Negative effects of a Colony
        • Increased risk of cannibalism, paracitism, and disease
        • Increased incidence of food stealing
        • Moving around to find a stable food source for the whole colony
      • Positive effects of a Colony
        • Extra-paring mating (can be negative)
        • conspecific brood parasitism (can be negative)
        • More effective awareness of predators
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